Manipulation or falsification of location data

'Many advertisers use location-based data to enhance their targeting. Fraudsters use this to their advantage by faking location data in order to maximise their ROI.'

Classification Sophisticated Invalid Traffic
TrafficGuard Indicators Clicks or installs that don't conform to the audience targeted
  High volumes of traffic obscured via VPNs
  Abnormally high conversion rates
Rejection Codes excessive_ratio_proxy_subpartner
  excessive_ratio_tor_subpartner
  excessive_ratio_vpn_subpartner
  rate_geospeed_device
Fraud Tactics Compliance Fraud