General Invalid Traffic
GIVT consists of traffic identified through routine means of filtration executed through application of lists or with other standardised parameter checks.
Sophisticated Invalid Traffic
SIVT consists of more difficult to detect situations that require advanced analytics, multi-point corroboration/coordination, significant human intervention, etc. to analyse and identify.
Manipulation or falsification of location data
Hijacked devices, user sessions, ad tags and ad creatives
Bots and spiders or other crawlers masquerading as legitimate users
Invalid proxy traffic
Hidden/stacked/covered or otherwise intentionally obfuscated ad serving
Incentivised manipulations of measurements
Adware + Malware
Falsely represented sites